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当前位置:铁素体不锈钢
[来源:www.] [作者:精密铸造] [日期:19-05-29]

铁素体不锈钢
Ferritic stainless steel
以铬为主要合金元素,含Cr量一般在13%--30%之间。具有良好的耐氧化性介质腐蚀的能力和在高温下耐空气氧化能力,也可用作耐热钢。此种钢的焊接性能较差。含铬大于16%时,铸态组织粗大,在400-525℃及550-700℃之间长期保温,会出现"475℃"脆性相及σ相,使钢变脆。475℃脆性与含Cr铁素体的有序化现象有关。475℃脆性相及σ相脆性,可通过加热到475℃以上然后快冷来改善。室温脆性和焊后热影响区的脆性也是铁素体不锈钢的基本问题之一,可采用真空精炼、加入微量元素(如硼、稀土及钙等)或奥氏体形成元素(如Ni、 Mu、 N、 Cu等)的办法加以改善。为了改善焊缝区与热影响区的力学性能,通常还加入少量的Ti和Nb,以阻止热影响区晶粒长大。常用的铁素体钢有ZGCr17和ZGCr28。该类钢的冲击韧性低,在很多场合被含高镍的奥氏体不锈钢所取代。含Ni量超过2%、含N量超过0.15%的铁素体钢有良好的冲击性能。
With chromium as the main alloy element, the content of Cr is generally between 13% and 30%. It has good corrosion resistance to oxidizing medium and air oxidation resistance at high temperature. It can also be used as heat-resistant steel. The weldability of this kind of steel is poor. When the content of chromium is more than 16%, the as-cast structure is coarse, and the brittle phase and_phase will appear between 400-525 and 550-700 after long-term heat preservation, brittle phase and_phase will appear at 475 to make the steel brittle. The brittleness at 475 C is related to the ordering of ferrite containing Cr. The brittleness of brittle phase and_phase at 475 (?) C can be improved by heating to over 475 (?) C and then rapid cooling. The room temperature brittleness and the brittleness of heat affected zone after welding are also one of the basic problems of ferritic stainless steel, which can be improved by vacuum refining, adding trace elements (such as boron, rare earth and calcium) or austenite forming elements (such as Ni, Mu, N, Cu, etc.). In order to improve the mechanical properties of weld zone and heat-affected zone, a small amount of Ti and Nb is usually added to prevent grain growth in heat-affected zone. Commonly used ferritic steels are ZGCr17 and ZGCr28. This kind of steel has low impact toughness and is replaced by austenitic stainless steel with high nickel content in many cases. Ferritic steels containing more than 2% Ni and 0.15% N have good impact properties.

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